Structural timber for the construction of a frame house is still a willingly used and popular building material. It is above all practical, and besides, cheap, light, durable and easily machined. It is used to build houses, terraces, gazebos, guest houses in the garden and all kinds of utility structures.
In addition to practical values, structural wood has a lot of aesthetic advantages, it turns a building into a rustic house or a highlander’s cottage. The wood inside and outside the house exudes natural warmth and emotional warmth.
What construction timber for frame houses?
Construction timber for frame structures must meet a number of rigorous standards. It also needs to be properly dried. There are two basic types of construction timber:
- construction timber glued in layers, planed four times, which is used in the first place to make the roof truss and the structure under the windows. This type of structural timber is glued together from sheets or strips of wood with waterproof glue. This methodology is characterized by high insulating properties and, which is also of great importance, it burns much slower in the event of a fire.
- solid wood is a material hewn from a single piece of wood, sawn twice, it is mainly used for the production of furniture.
Various grades of structural timber
Wood for frame structures is primarily ecological and energy-saving. Most often, pine is used to build houses due to its relatively light weight and physical properties. The issue of price is also significant here, pine is significantly cheaper in each version of the building material than larch or oak.
However, the tree species itself is not important in the process of choosing this natural building material. When choosing wood for the construction of a frame house, investors are guided by the consistently established class of wood, indicating its quality. The first selection group is the sorting class of the material marked as follows:
- KW: pick class
- KS: medium quality class
- KG: lower quality class
Most often, three types of wood are used for the construction of frame houses:
- Wood class C24 and C27. Both C24 and C27 structural wood are kiln dried, thanks to which they are characterized by high flexibility and durability. Grades of a lower grade should not be used for construction purposes. C24 wood is a selected material, with regulated humidity, without discoloration, cavities and defects.
- KVH wood is a solid wood used to construct ceilings and walls. It is made of elements that did not fit into the C24 class of wood . The building material is carefully cleaned, all cavities are leveled, and only then it is connected with wedge joints. This type of wood is as durable as C24, it is also characterized by high tightness and compatibility. However, due to its production process, it is relatively expensive.
- BSH is created similarly to KVH, but it is used only in important load-bearing places. This is due to the high resistance of the building material to deformation, cracks or damage.
How to join structural timber?
Joining structural timber is one of the basic construction techniques. For centuries, wooden scantlings have been joined using the tongue-and-groove or dovetail method . Some construction techniques come from the ancient Japanese carpentry school. Carpentry joints connect wooden beams permanently and reliably with the use of specially selected construction accessories.
The currently popular methods of joining construction timber are based on a pool of carpentry joints, also used in Poland. In the USA, about 80% of single-family houses are joined with carpentry joints. In our country, the proportions are slightly different, but the solutions are still effective. The most popular connectors on the Polish market include tapes, perforated plates, angle connectors, beam supports, column supports and cleats.
At the disposal of builders, there are also spiked plates (hedgehogs) used in the production of prefabricated trusses. Joints connect structural timber along the entire length of the beams and in other necessary configurations.
Construction timber price
Construction timber price list depends on its class and type. The price of C24 wood oscillates around PLN 1200-1300/m3. Relatively inexpensive components for a frame house built of this class of wood and in a raw state make it cost between PLN 150,000 and 250,000, depending on the volume. Investors more and more often decide to build a wooden house, which becomes available due to the building material and relatively short construction time. And due to its thermal insulation and energy-saving qualities, it can compete with any other material.
However, when deciding on this type of investment, it is always necessary to choose the best possible building material, even at the expense of outlays on interior equipment. The optimal use of a wooden house depends on its components. High-quality structural timber between C24 and C27 meets all technical conditions.